Dataset for: A proteomic analysis of contextual fear conditioned rats reveals dynamic modifications in neuron and oligodendrocyte protein expression in the dentate gyrus

Contextual memory is an intricate process involving synaptic plasticity and network rearrangement. Both are governed by many molecular processes including phosphorylation and modulation of protein expression. However, little is known about the molecules involved in it. Here, we exploited the advantages of a quantitative proteomic approach to identify a great number of molecules in the rat dentate gyrus after a contextual fear conditioning session. Our results allowed us to highlight protein expression patterns, not only related to neuroplasticity, but also to myelin structure, such as myelin basic protein and myelin proteolipid protein showing a decrease in expression. Validation of the modification in protein expression reveals a dynamic profile during the 48 hours following the fear conditioning session. The expression of proteins involved in neurite outgrowth, such as BASP-1 and calcineurin B1, and in synaptic structure and function, VAMP2 and RAB3C, was increased in the dentate gyrus of rats submitted to fear conditioning compared to controls. We showed that the increase in BASP-1 protein was specific to fear conditioning learning as it was not present in immediate shock rats, neither in rats exposed to a novel environment without being shocked. Since myelin is known to stabilize synaptic network, the decrease in myelin proteins suggests a neuroglia interactive process taking place in the dentate gyrus in the 24 hours following contextual fear learning which has never been demonstrated before. These results therefore open the way to the study of new plasticity mechanisms underlying learning and memory.